DAVID GREENE, HOST:
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GREENE: This is sound from St. Peter's Basilica in Rome where Pope Francis led mass for thousands of Catholics last night.
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POPE FRANCIS: (Foreign language spoken).
GREENE: The pope's message was solemn, but encouraging. He urged Catholics to let God help them overcome darkness and corruption. This came on the heels of a speech last week where he criticized the Vatican bureaucracy for what he called a catalog of illnesses. And many people like what they're hearing. A world survey conducted by Pew found an overwhelmingly favorable view of Pope Francis.
NPR's Sylvia Poggioli profiles a man who, in the last 21 months, has emerged as a leader on the global stage and whose appeal reaches beyond just Catholics.
SYLVIA POGGIOLI, BYLINE: Hours before the U.S.-Cuba diplomatic breakthrough was announced, Pope Francis stood on his Popemobile kissing babies and greeting crowds in St. Peter's Square for his weekly audience.
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POGGIOLI: It was also his 78th birthday. Hundreds of couples came to perform the tango to celebrate an Argentine once very adept on the dance floor. A more austere Francis appeared last month at the European Parliament. The first pope from outside the West bluntly told European leaders their continent is weary and becoming irrelevant.
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FRANCIS: (Through translator) A grandmother Europe, no longer fertile and vibrant. As a result, the great ideas that once inspired Europe seem to have lost their attraction only to be replaced by the bureaucratic technicalities of its institutions.
POGGIOLI: Francis is a master at blending the spiritual with the political. He has overhauled the Vatican's finances long tainted by suspicion of money laundering. He picked two clerical sex abuse survivors to join his new commission on protection of minors. And he appointed a council of nine cardinals to assist him in reforming the dysfunctional Vatican bureaucracy.
At the recent bishops' assembly on the family, Francis broke new ground encouraging free speech and exchange of ideas. Veteran Vatican analyst Marco Politi says Francis wants to reshape the church for the contemporary world abolishing its imperial nature.
MARCO POLITI: Well, the pope is half emperor and half God. He wants the Pope as bishop of Rome. He wants the church led not by an absolute monarch, but by the pope in collegiality where the bishops are called to be part of the decision-taking process.
POGGIOLI: Vatican watchers say Francis does not intend to alter doctrine. But unlike his two predecessors, he does not easily use the expression nonnegotiable values. The prevailing concept now is mercy. Argentine journalist Elisabetta Pique has known the former archbishop of Buenos Aires, Jorge Bergoglio, for more than a decade. What most distinguishes him from his predecessors, she says, was his proximity to his flock in the shantytowns of a large metropolis.
ELISABETTA PIQUE: Thirteen million people, with terrible differences and gaps within the very rich people and what he calls the excluded ones, from a country, Argentina, you very rich, but with a lot of problems because of corruption, mismanagement.
POGGIOLI: In the U.S., which Francis visits in September, the Pew survey shows he has a 78 percent favorability rating. But John Allen, the veteran Vatican analyst for the Boston Globe, says the first pope from the global South has irritated some conservative Americans by criticizing laissez-faire capitalism and the ills of globalization.
JOHN ALLEN: In his bones, the defense of immigrants is a hugely important issue. Well, immigration, of course, is a very divisive political question in the United States. He is deeply suspicious of free market global capitalism. We are the mothership of free market goal global capitalism. And so there's some resistance there.
POGGIOLI: There is also resistance within the Catholic Church. Vatican analyst Marco Politi fears what he calls the strategy of the swamp.
POLITI: A lot of people within the church let him speak, applaud and do nothing
POGGIOLI: A pope alone, says Politi, cannot change an institution with 1.2 billion members.
POLITI: For a pope to change the church, you need an engaged laity, you need engaged theologians, really engaged pro-reform bishops.
POGGIOLI: One of those is Archbishop Bruno Forte, author of the controversial section in the recent Synod's draft report that welcomed gays, conciliatory language rejected by traditionalists in the final report.
ARCHBISHOP BRUNO FORTE: If you decide to be transparent and to accept that the diversity of opinions may have a room in the church, it is normal that they are also people who don't agree completely with you.
POGGIOLI: It's said that behind Vatican walls, a whispering campaign is trying to undermine the pope's authority. But beyond the Catholic fold, Francis's humble streak and merciful tone have made him one of the world's most popular newsmakers. He was on the cover of Rolling Stone under the headline "The Times, They Are A Changing." And Fortune Magazine declared him the most influential person in the world. Argentine journalist Elisabetta Pique says Francis tackles everyday problems.
PIQUE: Human trafficking, the poverty, migration, all these people escaping for wars, all the big problems that our leaders have failed to address. And that is why he has become, really, a leader, a moral, international leader.
POGGIOLI: Francis is the first Jesuit pope. Over the centuries, that religious order often waged its own diplomacy acquiring extensive knowledge of other cultures. The training shows. On Syria, Francis was closer to Russia and China than to Western powers. He hosted a prayer summit with the Israeli and Palestinian leaders. And as the first Latin-American pope, he had street cred in Havana. The Pope, who described himself coming from the other end of the Earth, has embraced the bully pulpit of the papacy, emerging as a daring, independent broker on the global stage. Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Rome.
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