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The FBI says that last year about 20 Americans were detained trying to travel to Syria to fight for the so-called Islamic State. According to law enforcement, ISIS and other terrorist organizations are getting increasingly adept at using social media to recruit from abroad. NPR's Laura Sydell reports that social media companies like Facebook and Twitter are drawing criticism for not doing enough to stop this.
LAURA SYDELL, BYLINE: No one seemed more surprised to learn that 19-year-old Mohammed Hamzah Khan and his two younger siblings planned to join ISIS in Syria than their mother. The three siblings were caught by the FBI at O'Hare International Airport in Chicago as they were about to leave the country. Mohammed Khan has been charged with providing material support to a terrorist organization. Zarine Khan stood outside the courthouse, her head covered in Muslim modesty just after her son pled not guilty.
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ZARINE KHAN: We condemn the brainwashing and recruiting of children through the use of social media and the Internet, and we have a message for ISIS, Mr. Baghdadi and his fellow social media recruiters - leave our children alone.
SYDELL: Only a few details of how social media was used to recruit the Khan children have been made public. But Kahn's lawyers say that Twitter and a messaging service called Kik were crucial. Clinton Watts, a former FBI special agent who focused on terrorism, is now a fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute who follows online recruiting.
CLINTON WATTS: We go to Twitter...
SYDELL: Watts shows me how easy it is to tap into the world of online terrorist propaganda.
WATTS: When al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula put out their video message taking claim for the Hebdo attack, it quickly had its own hashtag.
SYDELL: Watts and I put the hashtag into Twitter.
WATTS: If you pan down on that account, it's interesting because you'll see there's video, there's Storify, there's like, every social media platform that's out there. They use - all the platforms are linked to it from there.
SYDELL: That hashtag takes me down a rabbit hole of propaganda from al-Qaida and ISIS.
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UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Foreign language spoken).
SYDELL: This is al-Qaida taking credit for the recent attack in Paris, a leader simply giving a speech. But Watts says many of the recent ISIS messages are slickly produced to attract the young.
WATTS: They actually showed young men who joined the fight, young foreign fighters, in Iraq conducting military operations, conducting violence, showing these guys as heroes. And that really resonated with the target audience.
SYDELL: The videos even use music to dramatize violent acts in the real world. J.M. Berger, a researcher at the Brookings Institution who's working on a book about ISIS, says if someone feels sympathy towards ISIS it's fairly easy to follow a like-minded Twitter account.
J.M. BERGER: You find somebody you're interested in, you start following them. You might interact with them. And then if the person is serious about joining the Islamic State or joining another group, they'll take it through a more private forum.
SYDELL: The forum used by Khan and his siblings appears to have been Kik, a social media app that allows private conversations.
BERGER: A lot of times, English-speaking jihadis on Twitter and on Facebook and other platforms will list their Kik address right in their profile to, you know, really to encourage people to approach them in a more private way.
SYDELL: Berger says the jihadis also use WhatsApp, a similar service that's owned by Facebook. One thing all of these social media platforms have in common is that they would not comment on the record about the issue.
BERGER: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are all trying to address this problem to some degree, but none of them stepped up to volunteer to do it. They all responded to outside pressures, whether it was negative news coverage or Congressional hearings or stern letters from people in government.
SYDELL: All of these companies could choose to ban pro-ISIS and al-Qaida propaganda because the First Amendment does not apply to privately-owned websites like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube. They do have terms of service. All of them ban violent threats. But for the most part, these companies rely on other users to report violations, and former FBI agent Watts says it isn't really in the DNA of these companies to take down content unless they're forced to.
WATTS: Doing takedowns or removing content goes very much against what they want their platform to do, which is to bring on as much content and discussion as possible. Because the more content that's there, the more discussion that's there, the more revenue they can generate for their business.
SYDELL: Although, Watts and Berger agree that taking down all the terrorist content might not actually be the best thing to do.
BERGER: There are ways that you can extract information from these networks that go beyond traditional investigative techniques that you would've had to rely on back in the days when all this stuff happened in physical spaces.
SYDELL: Berger thinks it's possible to keep up content that's useful to law enforcement without making it easy for alienated and vulnerable youth to find it. However, he thinks tech companies will need to be more active than they are now to strike the right balance. Laura Sydell, NPR News.
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