DAVID GREENE, HOST:
This country once had the outcome of a presidential election hanging by a chad. Since then, electronic voting was adopted in many parts of the United States. Security experts have long warned of vulnerabilities, and many serious problems have been addressed. And yet in some parts of Virginia, election officials are being forced to turn back the clock. Here's NPR's Pam Fessler.
PAM FESSLER, BYLINE: The problem showed up last November in Spotsylvania County in precinct 302. The county's WINVote touch-screen voting machines began to shut down. Edgardo Cortes is state elections commissioner.
EDGARDO CORTES: One machine would go - crash. They'd bring it back up. Another one would crash. Starting in the early afternoon, they brought in a piece of replacement equipment that would experience the same issues when they set it up in the precinct.
FESSLER: Cortes says election workers had a theory about what was causing the problem.
CORTES: There was some interference, potentially from a wireless signal from an election officer that was streaming music on their phone.
FESSLER: State investigators did not find that problem. But what they did find was even more disturbing. Using their smartphones, they were able to connect to the voting machines' wireless network which is used to tally votes. Other investigators quickly guessed the system's passwords. In one case, it was the letters A-B-C-D-E. They were then able to change the vote counts without detection.
I gather this is no surprise to you that the state election officials found these results?
JEREMY EPSTEIN: What I would be shocked at is if they hadn't.
FESSLER: Jeremy Epstein is co-founder of Virginia Verified Voting and one of many computer experts who had warned about the security flaws. He says there's no evidence that anyone has ever exploited them. But if they did, there's also no way to tell. And he says there's lots of room for mischief.
EPSTEIN: To change the list of races, change the list of candidates, change the votes that have been recorded, change the totals reported - things like that.
FESSLER: Which is why the state elections board decided to decertify the equipment immediately. That left officials in 30 counties and cities scrambling to find replacements as early as June, when some hold primaries. The good news is that these machines, which were purchased over a decade ago, are no longer made or used anywhere else in the country. But the Virginia action comes amid growing concern that the nation's voting equipment is getting old and outdated and will need to be replaced soon. Tammy Patrick is with the Bipartisan Policy Center and served on a presidential commission that studied the issue.
TAMMY PATRICK: We don't want to be yelling fire in a crowded theater. But you also want to make sure that the voting public still has confidence that their ballots are going to be counted as cast.
FESSLER: Patrick says the biggest obstacle is finding money to buy the new equipment. And that's the challenge for Virginia localities that had hoped to eke out another election or two using the old machines. Fairfax city officials say it will cost them about $130,000. And they're upset. Election administrator Kevin Linehan says setting up a new system too quickly poses a greater risk than any hypothetical hacker.
KEVIN LINEHAN: My most vulnerable aspect of running election is having properly trained officers of election. I'm looking at a very short timeline - get my officers trained in a whole new system.
FESSLER: Karen Alexander also doesn't know what to do. She runs elections in Powhatan County and has a primary in June. Still, she thinks the state made the right move.
KAREN ALEXANDER: I would feel very uncomfortable using the WINVotes. I wouldn't want my voters to know what I know and feel that they had to vote on these machines. The security risk is too high.
FESSLER: She says she might have to borrow equipment from a neighboring county to get through the primary. Or since only a few hundred voters are expected, she might just count ballots the old-fashioned way - by hand. Pam Fessler, NPR News.
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