Full Senate Debates May Reveal Recent Bipartisanship As An Illusion : It's All Politics On the committee level in the Senate, Republicans and Democrats have been able to get deals done. The problem will be what happens after bills leave the committees and head to the Senate floor.

Full Senate Debates May Reveal Recent Bipartisanship As An Illusion

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Just a few weeks ago, there was a delicate compromise allowing Congress to review any deal coming from nuclear talks with Iran. It was a rare moment of successful bipartisan negotiation in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and it received wide acclaim. But that deal to review a deal still needs to survive a vote by the full Senate, and that's not an easy win. NPR's Ailsa Chang explains why something that seemed so possible not long ago now looks very different.

AILSA CHANG, BYLINE: Three weeks ago, you might've gotten the impression that a bill allowing Congress to review any nuclear agreement with Iran was on a glide path to the president's desk. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee approved the deal 19-0, with credit going to the committee's two leaders. Here's Republican Bob Corker of Tennessee and Democrat Ben Cardin of Maryland.


SENATOR BOB CORKER: I cannot thank you enough for your temperament, for your tone, for your seriousness.


SENATOR BEN CARDIN: I think we both represent all the members of the Senate in bringing as much unity as we possibly can to foreign policy in this country.

CHANG: Well, that unity soon came apart on the Senate floor. The bill has been snared in a thicket of amendments, and the normally placid Cardin was starting to lose it last week.


CARDIN: We are trying to work out a way to do this. We've been on the floor, Senator Corker and I, now for four days, five days.

CHANG: As Corker and Cardin are finding out firsthand, the floor can be an infuriating place. Senate rules allow one lone-wolf senator the power to stop the train. And that's exactly what Arkansas Republican Tom Cotton did last week when he threatened to force a vote on a so-called poison pill amendment - a measure requiring Iran to recognize Israel as a state.


SENATOR TOM COTTON: I would say these are not poison pills. These are vitamin pills. They're designed to strengthen this legislation and strengthen the U.S. negotiating position. Who could object that Israel has a right to exist as a Jewish state?

CHANG: There's been talk lately about bipartisanship making a comeback in the Senate under its new Republican management, but so far most of that cooperative spirit has been in committee - not on the floor. Senators have negotiated revisions to the No Child Left Behind education law and fast-tracked trade negotiating authority for the president, but only in committee.

SARAH BINDER: In theory - right? - committees tend to be more collegial.

CHANG: Sarah Binder of the Brookings Institution.

BINDER: They tend to foster bargaining and really to promote accommodation.

CHANG: And there are very basic reasons for this, Binder says. For starters, committees have fewer people.

BINDER: Granted, senators are kind of big people and big egos, but 19 is far easier to deal with, obviously, than a hundred.

CHANG: And getting to the floor means getting more media attention, which usually favors the bold. The Senate now has four announced candidates for president, including Florida Republican Marco Rubio, who also took to the floor last week to push for a vote on Israel.


SENATOR MARCO RUBIO: If you don't want to vote on things, don't run for office. Be a columnist. Get a talk show.

CHANG: On the Iran review bill, senators have offered more than 60 amendments so far, taking advantage of an open invitation to do so from the new Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. Journalist Michael Golden has written a book about how Senate rules are choking the chamber's ability to function.

MICHAEL GOLDEN: When one person in a nation of 320 million people can halt the country's business due to one single threat of displeasure, our system isn't working.

CHANG: Or at least it isn't working so well for those trying to move difficult bills from the committee world of compromise to the combat arena of the Senate floor. Ailsa Chang, NPR News, The Capitol.

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