RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
The federal government has regained its ability to access America's phone records. When Congress passed the USA Freedom Act, it mandated that the job of storing that data will fall to private companies by the end of the year. AT&T, Verizon and other carriers will keep phone call metadata on their servers and hand it over to the NSA in limited cases. NPR's Aarti Shahani takes a look at how this will work.
AARTI SHAHANI, BYLINE: To be crystal clear, phone companies do not have a new mandate to collect or store metadata, the numbers called and time and length of calls.
JENNIFER GRANICK: The phone companies may already have data retention obligations under the Communications Act, but there's no additional obligation as a result of USA Freedom having passed.
SHAHANI: Jennifer Granick is director of civil liberties at Stanford University's Center for Internet and Society.
GRANICK: Any additional obligation would simply be to be able to provide a two-hop function.
SHAHANI: The two-hop function. That means, with court approval, the NSA gets the phone records of a targeted individual, then every number in contact with that individual, and then every number in contact with that wider circle - people two steps, or hops, removed.
GRANICK: Now the phone companies will be the place where that analysis of who is in contact with whom is taking place.
SHAHANI: The phone companies may develop their own system for retrieving the data, or NSA could create the software code for them.
GRANICK: There's nothing in the bill that explains how the phone companies are supposed to provide the two-hop information to the government.
SHAHANI: Phone companies also have a new right under the act to publicly disclose, in aggregate numbers, how many national security letters or orders they've received from the FISA Surveillance Court. Granick isn't sure what to expect.
GRANICK: It's voluntary, so what are the providers going to actually do?
SHAHANI: NPR asked the major telephone and cellular carriers if they plan to regularly disclose NSA requests or if they plan to change what data they store. The carriers are being tight-lipped, not commenting to us or to their business partners. For example, CREDO Mobile uses the Sprint network to serve its customers. CREDO Vice President Becky Bond says her company hasn't been privy to the inside baseball.
BECKY BOND: CREDO does not know what the major carriers, including Sprint - we don't know how the major carriers have addressed the providing of cell phone metadata. We don't know how they plan to implement this going forward under USA Freedom.
SHAHANI: CREDO is known for taking politically progressive stands. Bond says the new law recognizes that American consumers want privacy. She hopes carriers will take its passage as a wake-up call.
BOND: Step up and do everything within their legal rights to protect the privacy of the customers who so clearly demanded it in this fight.
SHAHANI: Phone companies and the NSA have 180 days implement the new setup, and either side can complain to lawmakers if it's not working out. Aarti Shahani, NPR News, San Francisco.
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