RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
Six years ago, the police moved into Rio de Janeiro's notoriously violent slums, or favelas. The so-called pacification project set out to reduce violence in the worst neighborhoods in the city, violence that was daily and brazen. The government was hoping to curb crime before the Olympic games next summer. NPR's Lourdes Garcia-Navarro looked into whether this pacification has worked.
LOURDES GARCIA-NAVARRO, BYLINE: To answer that question, it doesn't only depend who you ask but where you ask.
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GARCIA-NAVARRO: It's Saturday morning, and I'm at a busy market in a group of favelas called the Complexo de Alemao. And on one side of the street, there are about 15 heavily armed pacification police and on the other side of the street are protesters calling for them to withdraw.
MAYSE FREITAS: (Foreign language spoken).
GARCIA-NAVARRO: Mayse Freitas lists the people she knows who've been injured and killed in shootouts in the area recently. She says, I'm a mother and a grandmother. I don't want my children or grandchildren to be next.
FREITAS: (Foreign language spoken).
GARCIA-NAVARRO: "Pacification has been a failure," she says. "There is no pacification here. What we have is a war," she tells me. "Criminals against police, fighting over who are the more powerful, the more influential, and who suffers? We do," she tells me. In some of the larger favela complexes, where armed traffickers are more entrenched, police pacification units, known as UPPs, have been a lot more heavy-handed.
In Alemao, shootings where residents are caught in the crossfire are common. Police have been discovered trying to plant weapons on innocent bystanders. There have even been cases of forced disappearances and torture. Traffickers, for their part, have also attacked and surrounded police pacification outposts, and many cops have been injured and some killed. But in the pacified favela of Vidigal, it's a completely different story. It feels relaxed and quiet. Visitors are ferried up to the top of the community by motorcycles to take pictures of the view onto the sea or to stay at guesthouses.
CARLOS PEDROSO: (Foreign language spoken).
GARCIA-NAVARRO: Resident Carlos Pedroso says, "here, it's peaceful. I go to other pacified favelas and it's peaceful, too. It is so much better here than before." Vidigal and a clutch of other favelas that are doing well are close to the tourism areas of Leblon and Copacabana. They're smaller and, in many cases, pacification there was followed by some investment in infrastructure and social welfare spending.
IGNACIO CANO: They are not a single experience, so the situation varies a lot from some communities to others.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: Ignacio Cano is an expert on pacification from Rio de Janeiro's State University.
CANO: Anything good or bad which has happened over the last five, six years in terms of public security in Rio has systematically been attributed to UPPs.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: He says, though, that things are much more complicated when you analyze the data, so here are the numbers. Pacification began in 2008. It's now in 38 communities, encompassing 264 separate favelas. That's only about a quarter of the total number of favelas in Rio. Cano says between the program's start and 2012, there was a steep decline in murders and robberies all over the city. Inside favelas with police, homicide rates were actually halved. He says before pacification, there was no permanent state presence in most of these informal communities.
CANO: They have given us an alternative paradigm for public security. After the UPPs, even those the results are mixed, I think there's a clear perception that there is another way to deal with insecurity.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: But there are still many problems. Recently, crime is again on the rise. There had been a hope that this type of community policing would change the extremely violent police culture in Rio. That hasn't happened.
CANO: The relationship between the police and the community's still very tense and very bad in many UPP communities. Most policemen don't want to work in the UPPs, so the degree of internal legitimacy is very low.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: Still, all the analysts I spoke with said pacification had been a net positive for the city, and simply ending the program would be disastrous. So far, the promise is that the program will continue through at least 2018, beyond next summer's Olympic Games in Rio. But there is a massive economic crisis in the country right now.
ROBERT MUGGAH: The state has already cut its budget by over 25 percent when it comes to public security.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: Robert Muggah is with the IGARAPE Institue, which studies public security in Rio.
MUGGAH: There is a big question mark looming over all of this, which is whether or not the Brazilian government can sustain financing for these kinds of innovative models.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: So we called a UPP commander, Lt. Carlos Viega, in Vidigal, and he spoke to me by phone.
LIEUTENANT CARLOS VIEGA: (Foreign language spoken).
GARCIA-NAVARRO: He told me they are already feeling the pinch. "It's important to have a budget to meet our needs," he says. "We can try to more efficient, but we need more money as sometimes we feel we are kind of alone out here." Lourdes Garcia-Navarro, NPR News, Rio de Janeiro.
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