KELLY MCEVERS, HOST:
Hazleton, Pa., was just another struggling coal city until a wave of Latino immigrants came to town in 2006. That's when Mayor Lou Barletta tried to stop them.
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LOU BARLETTA: We want people to know that Hazleton is probably the strictest city in the United States for illegal aliens.
MCEVERS: Barletta was determined to uproot the Latino community in his city. Almost a decade later, it's pretty clear that didn't work. NPR's Eleanor Klibanoff reports.
ELEANOR KLIBANOFF, BYLINE: 2006 was a dark time in Hazleton, Pa. A wave of violent crime swept across the city. People were afraid to walk around downtown. Some of those crimes were committed by illegal immigrants, leading to an unprecedented crackdown on the Latino community. Mayor Joseph Yannuzzi was the City Council president at the time.
JOSEPH YANNUZZI: You had to be there, you know - live in this community where I never locked my doors. And all of a sudden, you're looking cross-eyed at people because it's illegal or legal - you don't know that.
KLIBANOFF: Yannuzzi insists that the law only targeted illegal immigrants. But Latinos of all legal status saw housing discrimination, harassment and police questioning. John Pujos, owner of a local pawn shop, remembers the stigma.
JOHN PUJOS: It's a shame because a lot of Latinos over here that work for living and trying to do the best and like their community. They want to see it grow, and they want to see it out of the crime.
KLIBANOFF: Hazleton was a difficult place to be Latino. But the job market was growing thanks to industrial parks and meatpacking plants. The rent was affordable and the schools were good. A community emerged, and today Hazleton is 40 percent Latino, among the highest in Pennsylvania. The city is younger and bigger than it's been in decades. And vacant storefronts downtown have been filled by new businesses.
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KLIBANOFF: It's a main street transformed. Reggaeton music pours from bodegas, bustling Mexican restaurants compete with pizzerias and Spanish mixes fluidly with English to create a Hazleton Spanglish.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Speaking Spanish).
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: (Speaking Spanish).
KLIBANOFF: Here's Neal DeAngelo with the Downtown Revitalization Alliance.
NEAL DEANGELO: The Latino community right now is the driving force behind a lot of the new businesses that are being opened up.
KLIBANOFF: A young, willing workforce has helped Hazleton climb out of the recession more quickly. Teri Ooms researches economic development at the nearby Wilkes University. She looked at manufacturing companies in the city since the immigration wave.
TERI OOMS: Their revenue went up. Their payroll went up, and their job creation went up.
KLIBANOFF: The Latino community is good for Hazleton's bottom line. That's all some residents need to know, like Mayor Yannuzzi.
YANNUZZI: I think it's good for the community, and it helped Hazleton establish itself again. And it added life back to the community.
KLIBANOFF: Hazleton isn't entirely through the dark times just yet. There are more drugs, gangs and crime than before. And unemployment is still high at 8.8 percent, though declining quickly. Local businessman Francisco Torres Aranda says the community is starting to work together on these issues rather than placing blame on one group. He points to the upcoming mayoral election as proof.
FRANCISCO TORRES ARANDA: I think before it was kind of seen that, well, the Latino community exists but we don't really want be associated with them because it might hurt our election chances.
KLIBANOFF: Mayor Yannuzzi lost the primary, and none of the remaining candidates are running on immigration issues. In fact, the guy that beat him printed campaign materials in both languages. For NPR News, I'm Eleanor Klibanoff.
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