ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
And these are some of the major stories of 2015.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED BROADCAST)
SCOTT SIMON: ISIS has claimed responsibility for a mass shooting.
NATHAN ROTT: And with the world set to meet about climate change...
STEVE INSKEEP: Drought is taking a toll on one of California's most...
MELISSA BLOCK: A bad thing has happened to a good robot.
WADE GOODWYN: The state of South Carolina removed the Confederate battle flag.
ARUN RATH: New reality show, "I Am Cait."
ANTHONY KUHN: So the one-child policy was completely unnecessary.
JENNIFER LUDDEN: Linda Franklin came from Detroit to see the Pope.
LINDA FRANKLIN: Oh my goodness.
SIEGEL: One of the biggest publishing events of this year was the release of Harper Lee's "Go Set a Watchman." This much-anticipated second book was actually a first draft of the novel which would later become "To Kill a Mockingbird." Lee radically revised this early version of the book on the advice of her editor, Tay Hohoff. That made us wonder, how much do editors shape the final book we read? NPR's Lynn Neary set out to find an answer.
LYNN NEARY, BYLINE: When Pulitzer Prize-winning author A. Scott Berg heard the news about "Go Set a Watchman" and the role Harper Lee's editor played in the creation of "To Kill a Mockingbird," he was surprised at first.
A. SCOTT BERG: But I immediately thought in fact of Max Perkins.
NEARY: Berg wrote an acclaimed biography of the legendary editor Max Perkins, who shepherded the works of such greats as F. Scott Fitzgerald, Thomas Wolfe and Ernest Hemingway. Berg says Perkins had a huge influence on the editors who came after him because of the way he worked with his authors.
BERG: Not only did he change the course of the American literary river, but he changed what editors do by becoming their best friends, their moneylenders, their marriage counselors, their psychoanalysts. And along the way, he began offering them titles. He often provided structure for what their novels ought to be. He often gave them whole ideas for what their next books should be.
NEARY: For many years after Perkins came on the scene that was the way editors interacted with their writers, says Berg. But now, he says, publishing has changed. These days there's much more pressure on editors to acquire best-sellers. And they're much more involved in marketing a book. And that, he says, leaves precious little time for actual editing.
BERG: Make no mistake about it. That editor/author relationship is still fundamental to good books, but it's not necessarily cost-effective for book editors to invest as much of their time into any single manuscript or any single author. And that's simply because the publishing houses have not encouraged their editors to edit.
NEARY: That's not necessarily so, says Rebecca Saletan, vice president and editorial director of Riverhead Books.
REBECCA SALETAN: It's been said since I got into publishing that publishing is going to hell in a handbasket, people don't really edit anymore. And since that was said to me 30 years ago, I have learned to take it with a big grain of salt.
NEARY: Saletan says selling a book has always been part of the editor's job. First they have to convince their publishers it's worth their investment. Then they work with the sales force, the publicist and marketers to get the book in the hands of readers. Still, she admits there are more demands on an editor's time these days.
SALETAN: I think what's changed is actually there's a lot more to do. Because in the old days you could, you know, tell your colleagues at the beginning of the process essentially what the book was like and you could, you know, do your best to introduce the book to book-sellers that you knew and so on. But there wasn't a ton to do. Now with online media and other aspects of modern life, there's a ton to do, and it takes a lot of time, and we have to work very, very hard to get our books above the tree line.
NEARY: But Saletan says spending time getting a book noticed doesn't mean an editor doesn't edit. She often does most of the hands-on work at night or on weekends. And it begins when a proposal or rough draft is first submitted for consideration.
SALETAN: The first task is just take it at face-value what is this writer trying to say? What's the project of this book? Once you understand that then you have to make tough decisions. Is this a good idea? Will there be an audience for it? Is this the right person to tell this story? Do they have the ability? If they don't have the ability, what's lacking? What can you bring to it? That's all the initial phase of evaluation. What I'm looking for is a mind that's capable of grappling with the structure of something as big as a book.
NEARY: But in today's competitive book market writers need an extra edge. So some literary agents, like Chris Parris-Lamb of The Gernert Company, give their client's book its first edit.
CHRIS PARRIS-LAMB: I don't see what I do as substituting for the editor. I want to make sure we have an editor (laughter).
NEARY: The editor has the power to accept or reject a book, says Lamb. So he needs to give his writers every advantage. He wants to be sure the manuscript that's being offered to publishing companies is as good as it can be.
PARRIS-LAMB: After I've taken something on and before we send it out, we say, let's take another look at this. Let's go through this really closely and let's spend some time before this goes from being a Word document in my inbox to a book that we're sending out to publishers.
NEARY: When a manuscript that's really special does come in, says Rebecca Saletan, you know it right away.
SALETAN: It's kind of like the hairs on your arms stand up on end. You know, it's just an excitement, a feeling of heat, a feeling that there's something new and interesting that you haven't heard before that would be interesting to other people. It's got instinct, really.
NEARY: But not every book submitted to a publisher is a masterpiece. Sometimes an editor does suggest major revisions. Saletan says she thinks it's still possible for an editor to ask a writer to make the kind of changes Harper Lee made in her book. But when all is said and done, she says, readers shouldn't know exactly what role the editor played in shaping the final book.
SALETAN: The editing certainly shouldn't be show-offy in any way. And I always cringe a little and feel a little sympathetic for the editor when a review says this wasn't well-edited because it's very hard for anybody outside of the process to know what went into it. There are writers who are really, really gifted and sort of have it in spades and don't need that much editorial help. And there are also people who need a lot and occasionally people who fight over it. And it's very hard to know from outside what really happened in that process.
NEARY: There is, says Saletan, an intimacy that inevitably develops between a writer and author as they work together on a book. And in that way, things haven't changed all that much since the days of Max Perkins. Lynn Neary, NPR News, Washington.
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