ARI SHAPIRO, HOST:
Italy has a new way to try to deter people from joining terrorist groups like ISIS. It's paying them to go to rock concerts, theaters and museums. Christopher Livesay reports from Rome.
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FLORENCE MATTEI: (Foreign language spoken).
CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY, BYLINE: Few things inspire more loathing in the hearts of high school students than the words extra homework. But Florence Mattei tells her homeroom class at the Southlands School in Rome that they may want to give this assignment a chance. She hands out a pamphlet.
MATTEI: Could you read? Who would like to read what it is about - Alessio?
ALESSIO: From the people born in 1998 there are 500 euros bonus that you can spend on cultural things such as going to the cinema, visiting museums and other stuff.
LIVESAY: You heard right. Italy is offering its 18-year-old residents 500 euros in vouchers, the equivalent of $563, to spend on culture. That consists of concerts, books, museums and other qualifying events. To get the money, they need to register online and download an app.
MATTEI: Do we want to try? Yeah, so get your phone.
LIVESAY: Youth unemployment in Italy is nearly 40 percent, so the free cash is a welcome surprise for these teens. Daniele Montagna knows where he's going to spend his first.
DANIELE MONTAGNA: On the concert of JB.
LIVESAY: What's JB - sorry, JB.
MONTAGNA: Justin Bieber.
UNIDENTIFIED STUDENT: Oh, God, no.
LIVESAY: But the program is more than just a warm welcome to a hostile economy. Prime Minister Matteo Renzi first announced it last November after the Paris massacre when Islamist terrorists killed 130 people inside a theater and outside on the streets.
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MATTEO RENZI: (Through interpreter) They destroy statues. We protect them. They burn books. We're the country of libraries. They envision terror. We respond with culture.
LIVESAY: But will exposing young people to, say, Lady Gaga really endear them to Western culture and deter future attacks?
BARAK MENDELSOHN: There is a good chance that Lady Gaga is exactly what's going to make somebody angry.
LIVESAY: Barak Mendelsohn is a senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute in Philadelphia and an expert in combating extremism.
MENDELSOHN: That doesn't mean that they buy into your values. We've seen schemes all over Europe of radicals trying to take advantage of the welfare state actually funding themselves while they're building bombs.
LIVESAY: He points to the Paris attackers. French authorities estimate they collected more than 50,000 euros in unemployment benefits even while at least one of them had a job.
MENDELSOHN: They don't have any ideological obstacle in taking money from Western country.
LIVESAY: While Italy has so far avoided the recent spate of terrorism in Europe...
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UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Speaking Arabic).
LIVESAY: ...The Colosseum and other Roman monuments figure prominently in ISIS propaganda videos like this one.
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UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: (Speaking Arabic).
LIVESAY: That's put Italian authorities on high alert as migrants and refugees arrive by the tens of thousands every year. This past spring, Italian authorities arrested four people suspected of plotting to bomb the Vatican under orders from Islamic State. Stefano Dambruoso is a member of the Italian parliament and an expert on counterterrorism.
STEFANO DAMBRUOSO: (Through interpreter) We shouldn't wait for attacks and intervene afterward. The Western world is bound to host more and more people because of mass immigration. We're not funding the culture bonus because we're such a good country. It's simply in our best interests to integrate people.
LIVESAY: People like Hassan Mehdi, a migrant from Bangladesh. He sells phone chargers at Rome's Porta Portese flea market.
LIVESAY: He says he's a resident and was born in 1998, so he's eligible for the 500 euros.
HASSAN MEHDI: (Speaking Arabic).
LIVESAY: "It's a great idea," he says. "I could buy books, improve my Italian, maybe get a better job," he adds. "This is the first I've heard of it. Where do I sign up?" For NPR News, I'm Christopher Livesay in Rome.
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