MICHEL MARTIN, HOST:
All this week, NPR has featured reporting on this country's most common learning disability - dyslexia. It's estimated that about 12 percent of the U.S. population has it, and that means that millions of children could benefit from extra help at school. But parents and teachers say that some schools won't even use the word dyslexia. Not surprisingly, many say that that has to do with money. Gabrielle Emanuel of the NPR Ed team reports.
GABRIELLE EMANUEL, BYLINE: Last school year, Megan Lordos was sitting in a meeting.
MEGAN LORDOS: We were in the conference room at the school.
EMANUEL: She taught middle school English at an Arlington public school in Virginia. In this particular meeting, she says, two parents had come in to talk with teachers and staff about their son and Lordos' student. He was an eighth grader struggling with reading.
LORDOS: My student had orthographic dyslexia. And when I mentioned that in the meeting, I was stopped. And they said, no, no, no, we don't say that.
EMANUEL: After the parents left, Lordos says the woman chairing the meeting apologized.
LORDOS: And said we're not allowed to say that because we don't have the capabilities to support that particular learning difference.
EMANUEL: Lordos says she suspects this is about not having enough resources.
LORDOS: I think, wow, we are one of the leading school districts in the country and so we're doing a lot very well. And it's just sad that we're doing something really not so well.
EMANUEL: Several parents in the district told me they had a similar experience. But Brenda Wilks, an assistant superintendent of the Arlington Public Schools, says they do use the term but carefully because educators can't actually diagnose dyslexia. She says that can lead to unfortunate misunderstandings. Last year, the district launched a Dyslexia Task Force. Kelly Krug is co-chairing it.
KELLY KRUG: Many years ago, it wasn't a word that was widely used. And in the past few years, it's really become a focus.
EMANUEL: This past year, she says, they put a link on the district website and held a training session to inform teachers about dyslexia. And this year, universal literacy screening is being expanded to fourth and fifth grade.
KRUG: That includes components that we would look for for students who have dyslexia, you know, so trouble decoding, spelling, rhyming, phonological awareness.
EMANUEL: Megan Lordos and the parents I spoke to say things are beginning to get better. But this issue is not limited to Arlington. It has come up in school districts around the country, and the U.S. Department of Education is paying attention.
RUTH RYDER: When we received the first letter, we thought it was, perhaps, an anomaly.
EMANUEL: Ruth Ryder is the acting director of the department's Office of Special Education Programs.
RYDER: But then as we started receiving more and more letters, it became clear that it was an issue that we needed to address.
EMANUEL: Late last year, the Department of Education wrote a public letter clarifying that there is nothing legally preventing schools from saying the word.
Do you have a sense of why schools might be resistant to using the word dyslexia?
RYDER: What we were told was that when they used the term dyslexia, then families thought that it meant that they would get a specific kind of instructional program.
EMANUEL: Here's the thing - federal law requires schools to help students who have dyslexia just like any other disability. But what exact help they receive is decided locally. It could be a trained reading specialist, one-on-one tutoring or adaptive technology. Hal Malchow of the International Dyslexia Association says those are all things the school district could have to pay for. He thinks this comes down to tight school budgets.
HAL MALCHOW: Schools engage in strategies to lower their special education expenses, and dyslexia is by far the largest group within the special education category.
EMANUEL: Malchow says if schools don't acknowledge dyslexia or say the word, then they don't have to pay for the services. But he says, not addressing reading problems actually costs a lot more in the long run. Gabrielle Emanuel, NPR News.
NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.