After Midnight: Thelonious Monk At 100 Misunderstood early in his career, the jazz pianist and composer — born Oct. 10, 1917 — came to have a massive effect on American music.
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After Midnight: Thelonious Monk At 100

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After Midnight: Thelonious Monk At 100

After Midnight: Thelonious Monk At 100

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He was called the high priest of bebop, the late pianist Thelonious Monk. With his goatee, dark sunglasses and exotic hats, Monk was the quintessential hepcat. When he played, he moved his feet in mad rhythm. And when his sidemen soloed, he danced in circles. Thelonious Monk was also an influential composer. It's the 100th anniversary of his birth today, and Tom Vitale has this appreciation.

TOM VITALE, BYLINE: Thelonious Monk wrote about 70 songs, many of which became standards, including the most-recorded jazz composition of all time, "'Round Midnight."


ROBIN KELLEY: Thelonious Monk is probably the most innovative, if not the greatest, composer in the music we call jazz.

VITALE: Robin Kelley is author of "Thelonious Monk: The Life And Times Of An American Original."

KELLEY: As a pianist, he really brought together an earlier form of stride piano, a kind of classic form of early jazz piano with a real modern conception of the instrument.


KELLEY: And there are very few musicians who have a sound so original that no one can mimic them.


VITALE: Thelonious Monk was there at the birth of bebop in the early 1940s, when the emphasis on jazz shifted from big bands to virtuosic small groups. And they all played Monk's compositions. Some of them even became famous - Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie. But Monk remained relatively obscure. In 1964, he told radio host David Kidd he didn't let it get to him.


THELONIOUS MONK: I mean, there's much happening. You know, like, there's always something to occupy your mind or something to occupy your time. There's so many things to do that I didn't even feel it. I didn't notice it that much. If I did, I would be bitter.

VITALE: And Monk had a lot to be bitter about. He was broke most of his life. For years, he couldn't play in New York City because the police revoked his Cabaret Card, his musician's license, after he was arrested. Biographer Robin Kelley.

KELLEY: Thelonious was arrested multiple times, once for possession of marijuana, once for possession of heroin which wasn't even his, and once in Delaware when he was traveling with a white woman and the police pulled up and stopped him.

VITALE: That white woman was the Baroness Pannonica de Koenigswarter. She was a member of the Rothschild family and a jazz enthusiast. She became Monk's muse and his patron, giving him money, driving him to gigs and letting him rehearse and record at her home.


MONK: Hi, everybody. I would like to play a little tune I just composed not so long ago entitled "Pannonica." It was named after this beautiful lady here, Pannonica.


VITALE: The women in Monk's life turned up a lot in his music. "Ruby My Dear" was written for a former girlfriend. He wrote "Crepuscule with Nellie" for his wife.


VITALE: Thelonious Monk was born in Rocky Mount, N.C. His family moved to New York when he was 5. He started playing piano a year later. He dropped out of high school to go on the road, backing an evangelist. Composer David Amram was a young French horn player gigging around New York in the 1950s when he got to know Thelonious Monk.

DAVID AMRAM: Monk was one of the most inspiring, delightful, warm, sensitive, funny, brilliant people to be around you possibly could be in your life. And all of us that were blessed to know him always think of that. And his music reflects that.


VITALE: Some scholars say the reason Monk didn't become famous earlier is because he favored slower tempos and more complex rhythms and melodies. But that hasn't prevented his music from appealing to subsequent generations of jazz musicians. Indonesian piano prodigy Joey Alexander was 10 years old when Wynton Marsalis discovered him on a YouTube video playing Monk's "'Round Midnight." Alexander is 14 now and has just released a centennial tribute to Thelonious Monk.

JOEY ALEXANDER: Monk is such an inspiration, and his music changed me in how I approach the music.


VITALE: Thelonious Monk's music endures because it is so distinctive, as pianist Barry Harris told me in 1987. Harris lived with the older musician for several years at the end of Monk's life.


BARRY HARRIS: I think most pianists, when you hear them, they're going to play some kind of little sound that's going to be like a Monk sound. I believe that what we're supposed to do - every concert is supposed to have a Monk tune. I mean, if you're a jazz musician, you're supposed to play a Monk tune because Monk is the epitome of jazz.

VITALE: Thelonious Monk suffered from a form of mental illness that worsened in the late 1960s. He spent the last decade of his life as a guest in the baroness de Koenigswarter's mansion in New Jersey. He died of a stroke in 1982 at the age of 64. For NPR News, I'm Tom Vitale in New York.


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