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The Academy of Motion Pictures, Arts and Sciences (ph), the group that puts on the Oscars, expelled Harvey Weinstein over the weekend. Many women have accused him of sexual misconduct going back decades. The Hollywood scandal has people elsewhere talking about why workplace harassment complaints sometimes go unheeded. So how are sexual harassment claims supposed to be handled? Here's NPR's Yuki Noguchi.
YUKI NOGUCHI, BYLINE: Most employers in most industries have policies and procedures on how to report incidents of sexual harassment, and human resource officials are required to investigate those claims. But when it comes to sexual harassment, HR consultant Sharon Sellers says there's still a big gap between what should happen and what actually does. One concern is that many people don't feel safe reporting them.
SHARON SELLERS: The employer should take every complaint seriously. And this is one area I see where it falls down.
NOGUCHI: And there are plenty of other pitfalls and challenges. Sellers says investigations themselves can create inter-office strife. The process involves interviewing the parties and any witnesses. And gossip can be destructive.
SELLERS: The fewer people that know about the situation, the less likely you will have people that will be treating the complaining party adversely because of them making the complaint.
NOGUCHI: Another big concern is retaliation or the perception of it. Sellers, who is also an adviser to the Society for Human Resource Management, says employers sometimes make the mistake of reassigning accusers to less-desirable jobs or shifts, resulting in secondary lawsuits against the employer.
Because so many harassment cases pit one person's word against another, a lack of evidence can also pose challenges. Many of Weinstein's accusers, for example, weren't employees but people hoping to be hired. Sellers says those cases can be notoriously difficult to prove, especially when there is no history or ongoing relationship.
SELLERS: It is more difficult to prove if you're not an employee but you're one of many applicants and you didn't get the job.
NOGUCHI: Even where evidence exists, laws may not apply. Federal discrimination laws apply to employers with 15 or more employees. And although many states have lower thresholds, people in the smallest firms often have little recourse but to leave. And then there are those who say the investigations themselves are rigged in the employer's favor. If, for example, it's an executive facing charges, sometimes a company will hire an independent third party to investigate. But not all employers do this.
Barry Nixon is executive director of the National Institute for the Prevention of Workplace Violence, another consultancy. He says when there is no outside investigator, it falls to HR executives to confront the boss.
BARRY NIXON: So they have an obligation to do that. But let's be real. That takes empowered HR people that have courage. And unfortunately I see a lot of them that don't.
NOGUCHI: I mean, the HR department reports to management, right?
NIXON: HR is in a tightrope situation because there's no question. They report to management, and they represent management. But they're also in the position where they represent employees. And they keep the company out of trouble.
NOGUCHI: Nixon says if all else fails, he advises victims of sexual harassment to write a letter outlining their complaints to the accused and their employer and hire an attorney or file a case with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Yuki Noguchi, NPR News, Washington.
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