LULU GARCIA-NAVARRO, HOST:
After Harvey flooded Houston, it brought calamity when it drained into the Houston Ship Channel and the Galveston Bay. The aftermath of the storm threatens two vital industries - one mammoth and ironclad, the other small and slimy. NPR's John Burnett reports on shipping and oysters.
JOHN BURNETT, BYLINE: Fire Boat One cruises down the Houston Ship Channel, one of the hardest working waterways in America. On either side of the channel are grain silos, warehouses and storage tanks for products ranging from petroleum to molasses. Giant container ships refuel for their voyages back across the Atlantic. Tugboats are nudging rusty barges in every direction.
MARK VINCENT: You look out here today. It's a nice, calm day, except that we're draft restricted.
BURNETT: Draft restricted - that means in places, the ship channel is too shallow, explains Mark Vincent. He's director of channel development for the Port of Houston. Houstonians were relieved when floodwaters drained from the city's bayous into the ship channel, then the bay and finally into the Gulf. But that was just the beginning of Mark Vincent's troubles.
VINCENT: This storm event was absolutely extraordinary. We estimate millions of tons of sediment were carried into the ship channel, all of which need to be removed over time in order to enable safe navigation of our ships.
BURNETT: The Port of Houston ranks as the busiest in the nation and first in foreign waterborne tonnage. It serves the largest petrochemical complex in America. But these shoals created by Harvey mean that cargo-laden ships risk running aground because they sit so low in the water.
VINCENT: And we have many, many ships that might have to plan to bring less cargo and, over time, bring more ships to Houston simply because we're draft restricted.
BURNETT: Enter the dredges - these ungainly workhorses suck mud from the murky floor of the channel 24/7. More than a century ago, dredge boats scooped out a trench 52 miles long down Buffalo Bayou and across shallow Galveston Bay to create the Houston Ship Channel. Ever since, nature has been trying to fill it back in. The dredges have to maintain the channel at a depth of 45 feet for the deep-draft ships delivering Volkswagens, wind turbine blades and other heavy cargo to the sea port.
TRICIA CAMPBELL: We hear this over and over again. Our district's been dredging for over a hundred years. This is what we do.
BURNETT: Tricia Campbell is operations manager with the Galveston District of the Army Corps of Engineers. Every year for the past three years, huge floods in Houston have forced emergency dredging. In fact, the workboats were still scooping up silt from earlier storms when Harvey hit. With more monster storms hitting Houston, the port lobbies Congress to give the corps additional funding to maintain the ship channel. Campbell concedes they could use more dredges.
CAMPBELL: If we had more funding, we could put out more contracts, more dredging. But at this time, you know, we work with what we get.
BURNETT: After Harvey's 4 feet of rain fouled up the ship channel, it poured into Galveston Bay. Bob Stokes is president of the Galveston Bay Foundation.
BOB STOKES: It essentially turned Galveston Bay into a freshwater lake. And many of our species were impacted negatively by all that freshwater. The one that's going to have the longest-term impact is our oysters.
BURNETT: Galveston Bay is one of the nation's major oyster fisheries. Oystermen are reporting a massive kill off of the delectable mollusk, which, here on the Gulf Coast, is dipped in red cocktail sauce mixed with horseradish and a dash of Tabasco and eaten with a crisp saltine. Raz Halili, co-owner of Prestige Oysters, says when he came to his company docks after the storm, the bay had so much muddy fresh water it looked like a melted chocolate bar.
RAZ HALILI: They need a brackish water. They need that mixture of fresh water and salt water to really thrive. But when you get too much of one thing, it can be bad.
BURNETT: 2017 was supposed to be a banner year for Galveston Bay oysters. They'd come back strong from successive bad seasons brought on by earlier storms. Harvey has set back the harvest again. An oyster boat named The Hustler sidles up to the dock as pelicans dive for lunch out on the bay. Mexican deckhands heave hundred pound sacks of the bivalves onto a conveyor belt. Arsem Hyseni - an immigrant from Kosovo, just like the owners of Prestige Oysters - steps off the boat after six hours on the water.
ARSEM HYSENI: They hurt pretty bad. I mean, some places 100 percent die. Some places we're working now is 50, 40 percent die. Some places better. But hit pretty hard this time.
BURNETT: This time the oysters will eventually recover, but in the near term, prices on the half shell will jump. The dredges will work to deepen the ship channel. But in the meantime, it will make shipping more expensive. The costs from Hurricane Harvey keep piling up. John Burnett, NPR News, Houston.
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