Ice Age Forest Long Buried In Gulf of Mexico Offers Climate Change Clues The remarkable discovery of an intact ancient cypress forest in the Gulf of Mexico may reveal a lot about climate change — the past and the future.

Scientists: Long-Buried Ice Age Forest Offers Climate Change Clues

  • Download
  • <iframe src="" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript


A productive fishing spot off the Alabama Gulf Coast is helping scientists understand what happened during the Ice Age. An angler discovered an ancient cypress forest long buried in the depths of the Gulf of Mexico. Scientists say it holds clues about how climate change today might affect the coast. Now an Alabama journalist is trying to have the site federally protected. NPR's Debbie Elliott reports.

DEBBIE ELLIOTT, BYLINE: About 10 miles off the Alabama coast, Ben Raines falls gently backwards from a boat into the Gulf of Mexico, a scuba tank strapped to his back.


ELLIOTT: Raines is an environmental reporter with, and he's embarking on a mission to collect Cypress samples from 60 feet below.

BEN RAINES: So we're actually going down there with a saw, and we're going to cut some pieces just like we were in a forest on land.

ELLIOTT: A fellow diver first brought Raines here after a local fisherman discovered the site. He'd hit a sweet red snapper spot that spread over a wider area than the artificial reefs and sunken ships where anglers typically find fish. When divers explored further, they found a half-mile stretch of stumps running along a trench that was likely once a riverbed.

RAINES: You could suck all the water out of here and walk through this forest, and you would recognize it if you've been in a swampy forest. The placement of the trees, how far apart they are and everything, as you're swimming, is just like in a forest. They're about five feet apart, and you'll see the knees around the cypress.

ELLIOTT: Scientists say it's a remarkable discovery.

KRISTINE DELONG: The underwater forest is like the Garden of Eden underwater.

ELLIOTT: Kristine DeLong is a paleoclimatologist at Louisiana State University. She says tests date the forest to be about 50,000 years old.

DELONG: On the science side, I mean, for us it's a huge deal because here we have this, like, perfectly preserved time capsule of an Ice Age forest.

ELLIOTT: Most forests from that time period were bulldozed by ice sheets or flooded by melting glaciers, she says, so having an intact forest like this is rare. The theory is that it was buried in mud and sand and protected until waves from a powerful hurricane uncovered it in 2004. Now scientists are trying to learn more before the wood deteriorates from exposure to the saltwater. DeLong says they're looking at pollen, seeds and insects found in sediment cores taken from the site, and they're learning what happens during periods of climate change.

DELONG: We know during the Ice Age we get these really rapid fluctuations in sea level rise, and that's very similar to what the coastline's experiencing today. We're going through rapid sea level rise. So what happens to these forest ecosystems?

ELLIOTT: She says the information could be useful to Gulf states like Louisiana dealing with a coastal land loss crisis.

DELONG: I have students and people ask me all the time, like, do you believe in climate change? And I'm like, yeah. It's, like, I'm sitting on a boat 10 miles offshore with 5-foot diameter trees' stumps underneath me. The only way that happens is climate change.


ELLIOTT: Out on the Gulf, Ben Raines is back from his dive.


RAINES: Now we've got wood.

ELLIOTT: He plops a wet and muddy chunk onto the boat deck.

RAINES: This is a newly uncovered piece, and you can see the grain in the wood, and it's hard as a rock.


RAINES: It's like you just cut it down in the forest.


ELLIOTT: Marine scientist Brian Jones is also on the staff.

BRIAN JONES: There's some fish in the net.

ELLIOTT: He's gathering specimens to include in a display about the underwater forests at the Dauphin Island Sea Lab on the Alabama coast.

RAINES: So what all did you catch?

JONES: Just a belted sandfish and a bandtail puffer and an arrow crab.

ELLIOTT: Looks more like a praying mantis or something.

JONES: It does. Yeah. It's got really long, skinny legs, and they like to live around rocks and structure and sunken forests.


ELLIOTT: Jones also brought up sponges and anemones that had burrowed into the old wood. He says the northern Gulf floor for the most part is flat and sandy so finding an area like this, with the kind of sea life you might find on a coral reef, is a treat, one that he'll try to recreate in an aquarium.

JONES: It captivates people, being able to touch one of these pieces of wood and actually see the fish and crabs that live there. It'll be really special.

RAINES: Brian, did you see this piece with all the coral on it?

JONES: Yes. Yeah. It's excellent.

ELLIOTT: Ben Raines has produced a documentary about the underwater forest and is working to have the site declared a national marine sanctuary.

RAINES: It's like any of our, you know, national treasures. You know, you can go to the Grand Canyon or whatever. That's what this is. This is a natural wonder, and it really ought to get to stay here rather than, you know, be turned into coffee tables and electric guitars.

ELLIOTT: Raines says salvage companies have already been calling, trying to get the GPS coordinates for the site, hoping to harvest the bald cypress wood. Debbie Elliott, NPR News, Orange Beach, Ala.

Copyright © 2018 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.