MARY LOUISE KELLY, HOST:
To Florida now, where invasive species are a big problem. The state's department of agriculture says at least two invasive species are established there every month. They are brought in through cargo or by visitors. NPR's Greg Allen reports that Florida researchers are making progress in the battle against one such pest - the invasive plant Brazilian pepper.
GREG ALLEN, BYLINE: On a cattle ranch near Fort Pierce, Kate Rotindo bends over a Brazilian pepper bush and taps on a small vial.
KATE ROTINDO: They're really small. You can see them kind of crawling around. Yep - oop (ph), there he goes.
ALLEN: On this day, a team from the University of Florida is releasing some 1,500 of the tiny insects called thrips. They, like the plant, come from Brazil.
What's the actual name of the thrip?
CAREY MINTEER: The scientific name?
MINTEER: The Pseudophilothrips ichini.
ALLEN: I was just testing you.
MINTEER: Yes (laughter).
ALLEN: Carey Minteer is an entomologist in charge of a project that stretches back decades. Working with researchers in Brazil, U.S. scientists identified some of the insects that keep Brazilian pepper in check in its native habitat. In Florida, Brazilian pepper was introduced more than a century ago as an ornamental plant, valued for its red berries and dark green foliage. Since then, it's overrun much of the southern part of the state, also parts of California and Texas, covering 700,000 acres.
Mike Adams says he began to see it on his family's cattle ranch near Fort Pierce in the late '60s.
MIKE ADAMS: I know my cousins from Miami - they would use the Brazilian peppers for their Christmas tree 'cause they had the nice, bright redden berries, and they were wonderful (laughter).
ALLEN: On cattle ranches, military bases and natural areas, if left unchecked, Brazilian pepper takes over. Adams spends some $250,000 every year to control the weed on his 40,000-acre ranch.
ADAMS: You know, they just get started, and they just create a monoculture wherever they get started at. So they'll push out all your natives. They'll extend out in your grasslands and start phasing those out.
ALLEN: In Everglades National Park, contractors have worked to remove Brazilian pepper for the past two decades. A park service video shows bulldozers pushing over all the vegetation in an area that used to be farmland. The topsoil is scraped down to the bedrock. The effort has cost more than $100 million so far, but it's the only way permanently to remove the invasive plant.
Researcher Carey Minteer says using herbicides and just pulling up the bushes are temporary measures. And making things worse, Brazilian pepper is related to poison ivy, and many people are sensitive.
MINTEER: These things are multi-stemmed. These stems are very tangled. It's - you really have to get in there. Sometimes these thickets are really intertwined. People are allergic to them, and so getting in there is really, really difficult.
ALLEN: Minteer and other researchers have high hopes for the thrip and another insect that preys on the plant in its native range, the yellow Brazilian peppertree leaf-galler. After decades of research, they've proven the two species aren't a threat to any native plants, and they've received federal permission for large-scale releases here. Minteer says the two bugs won't get rid of all the invasive plant, but they should stop it from spreading.
MINTEER: That would be how I would define success - is to have less than 700,000 acres of Brazilian pepper.
ALLEN: It's taken decades of research to get here, but it's a small victory in a never-ending battle to control invasive species.
Greg Allen, NPR News, Fort Pierce, Fla.
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