SCOTT SIMON, HOST:
Conflict is unfolding between Native Americans and farmers in Washington state. In a valley an hour and a half north of Seattle, elk are making a comeback after being nearly wiped out in the late 1800s.
From member station KUOW, Eilis O'Neill reports that while local tribes are thrilled, the agricultural industry is not.
EILIS O'NEILL, BYLINE: It's just after sunrise, and elk grazing in a misty field.
SCOTT SCHUYLER: It looks like there's roughly 40 animals there. They seem to be walking away a little bit.
O'NEILL: Scott Schuyler is a member of northwest Washington's Upper Skagit Tribe. He grew up in the suburb south of Seattle. But when a court decision reaffirmed his tribe's right to hunt and fish in the Skagit Valley, his family moved back to their ancestral home. Schuyler remembers hunting his first elk in 1987, when he was 24 years old.
SCHUYLER: Oh, I was really proud at the time because, you know, it's our tradition when you get your first animal, you give to your community, you give to your elders. And so I gave most of the animal away.
O'NEILL: But, Schuyler says, some of the Skagit Valley's farmers and ranchers were not happy that tribal members are moving back, claiming their rights.
SCHUYLER: I've had a lot of firearms pointed in my direction, a lot of lead being shot in my direction. I've been peppered with birdshot.
O'NEILL: He says he's had his tires slashed, his fish stolen. He's gotten death threats on social media. Schuyler's tribe and others are sovereign nations that have treaties with the U.S. government that date back to the mid-1800s. Those treaties guarantee their right to hunt, fish and gather and grant them a role in fish and wildlife management. But Schuyler says some residents and some public officials don't think the tribe should have those rights.
SCHUYLER: Then it becomes socially acceptable to attack the tribe, tribal members and tribes' rights.
EILEEN GOOD: It's making it impossible for us to survive as a farmer.
O'NEILL: Eileen and Randy Good grew up in Skagit Valley, and they've been dairy farmers and cattle ranchers here for more than four decades. They say elk are knocking down fences and eating up pastures.
RANDY GOOD: I figure we have lost, like, $36,000 a year due to the elk crossing and wrecking the fences all the time.
O'NEILL: Randy Good likes to point to a Skagit County assessor's report that elk are causing $1.4 million of damage in the valley every year. That number relies on farmers self-reporting the damage, but no one doubts the loss is real and widespread.
Bill Schmidt is president of the Skagit Valley Farm Bureau. He objects to any tribal involvement in elk management.
BILL SCHMIDT: I mean, it's like 1% or less of our population is controlling the management of the elk, and it doesn't seem right.
O'NEILL: Historians say Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest have hunted elk for thousands of years. Still, Schmidt maintains white settlers in the early 1900s said there weren't many Native Americans in Skagit Valley. And those who were there...
SCHMIDT: They were not into deer and elk. They were basically fishermen.
O'NEILL: Historians say that claim is incorrect. But for Schmidt, this is about something beyond the specifics of deer and elk and fish.
SCHMIDT: They're claiming all these rights because it's an easy way to have extra rights. I think they should be more forthright and try and be, to me, more American.
O'NEILL: The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife is trying to bridge the divide by keeping elk away from farms, reimbursing farmers for losses and shooting problem animals. But tribal member Scott Schuyler says compromise is difficult because of the pervasive belief that neither elk nor tribes belong in the valley.
SCHUYLER: We've made this deal with the United States. It was like, OK, well, you're giving up your land. But you know what? We'll let you continue fishing and hunting. And those same rights are under attack.
O'NEILL: Wildlife officials will be spending the next three months counting and collaring the Skagit Valley's elk. Their goal is to minimize conflict while also growing the herd to a more robust population. For NPR News, I'm Eilis O'Neill in Skagit Valley.
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