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Immigration officials at airports and border crossings have broad discretion to question any U.S. citizen and to reject any foreign traveler, even if that person has a valid visa. What they can't do is target certain nationalities, and immigrant advocates worry that is exactly what is happening. NPR's Joel Rose has more.
JOEL ROSE, BYLINE: The head of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Mark Morgan, made a surprising admission this week about the agency's Seattle field office. Last month, officers at a border crossing there pulled aside hundreds of Iranian Americans, including U.S. citizens and green card holders, and held them for hours.
MARK MORGAN: In that specific office, leadership just got a little overzealous.
ROSE: At the time, tensions with Iran were rising after the U.S. airstrike that killed a top Iranian general and field offices had been told to be vigilant. But Morgan says that did not mean to hold everyone from Iran.
MORGAN: That was not in line with our direction. And so that was immediately corrected, and it was very unique to that one sector.
ROSE: But immigrant advocates say this was not an isolated mistake. Across the country, they say, Customs and Border Protection officers are targeting travelers for extra scrutiny, particularly travelers from Iran and the Middle East, many coming here for school.
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UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER #1: Good evening. Tonight, an incoming Michigan State graduate student is on his way back to Iran...
UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER #2: Instead of returning to classes in Boston, a Northeastern student is now thousands of miles away tonight...
UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER #3: Immigration officers at Boston Logan Airport deported an incoming Harvard freshman...
ROSE: There are nearly 20 documented cases of Iranian students who have been rejected at U.S. airports, including a young woman named Reihana. She asked us not to use her last name because she's still fighting to get into the U.S. Reihana was planning to start a new chapter in her life as a student at Harvard Divinity School, but she never made it out of the Boston airport.
REIHANA: When I got deported, I lost everything that I planned for.
ROSE: Reihana had been vetted by U.S. authorities to get a student visa. But she says CBP officers questioned her for hours, repeatedly asking how she felt about the Middle East and the government of Iran.
REIHANA: It was very difficult. I didn't understand, what does this have to do with the Iranian government? I was a student, not a representative of any government.
ROSE: She asked to talk to a lawyer, but she says the officers wouldn't let her. They sent her back to Tehran and barred her from returning to the U.S. for five years.
REIHANA: In a few hours, an officer has the power to ignore all months of vetting on your case - and just made another decision based on my nationality and, you know, discrimination.
ROSE: Reihana has a lawyer now. She filed a formal complaint with CBP and is suing in federal court. She still wants to go to Harvard and also to hold the officers who rejected her accountable. As for CBP, the agency insists it does not target people based on nationality. So how could this happen? We asked Ronald Vitiello, who served as the deputy commissioner of CBP under President Trump. He says officers do have broad discretion and a mandate to keep America safe.
RONALD VITIELLO: They're looking for threats to the country. They want to make sure the people are who they say they are.
ROSE: But Vitiello says CBP officers can't just pull aside travelers based on the color of their skin or their country of origin. They have to have something more to base their suspicion on, much like police when they stop suspects on the street.
VITIELLO: They can't deny people just because they happen to be affiliated in some way with Iran. There has to be justification for the decisions that they make.
ROSE: You want these officers to do more than just stamp passports, says Gil Kerlikowske. He led CBP under President Obama.
GIL KERLIKOWSKE: They're not merely automatons that look at someone and stamps the record. We ask them to take additional steps to make sure that people entering into the country are not going to cause harm.
ROSE: But there's a lot we still don't know about the process. For instance, there are many unanswered questions about a group of specially trained CBP officers known as Tactical Terrorism Response Teams, or TTRT. Scarlet Kim is a lawyer with the ACLU, which is suing to find out more about these teams.
SCARLET KIM: We don't know much about them because the government has not provided much information to the public about how they operate. But what we do know raises a lot of red flags.
ROSE: What we know is that these teams operate at more than 40 major airports and border crossings around the country. In a single year, they refused entry to 1,400 people, according to congressional testimony. And according to a leaked internal memo, they were working with the Seattle field office when hundreds of Iranian Americans were held recently.
But most alarming for the ACLU is this - in an interview, a Trump administration official said that these officers can stop any traveler, even those who don't present a known security risk. Instead, these officers can rely on their, quote-unquote, "instincts." The ACLU's Scarlet Kim says that's a recipe for ethnic and racial profiling.
KIM: Instinct suggests that officers can essentially rely on any kind of hunch that they might have about an individual. And that hunch can rest on an implicit or explicit bias.
ROSE: But Kim says there's no way to know for sure if these teams are doing anything wrong without better public oversight.
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RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
NPR's Joel Rose.
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