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Protests over racial justice and inequality have filtered into cultural institutions like museums - museums, where the walls of permanent galleries are whiter and more male than the world outside them. Emma Jacobs reports on growing efforts to raise financial support for museums to build more inclusive collections.
EMMA JACOBS, BYLINE: When the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts bought Manuel Mathieu's painting of his late grandmother in 2018, he learned that it would be the first work the museum had ever owned by a Haitian-Canadian artist.
MANUEL MATHIEU: When that happened, I automatically started thinking, OK, how can I make sure that I'm not the only one? And now I start asking people questions and meeting people and asking, like, what can I do to shift that?
JACOBS: What the 33-year-old painter did was donate the money from the sale back to the museum to start a fund to acquire other pieces by underrepresented artists. Soon, donors were eager to give to the Marie-Solange Apollon Fund, named for Mathieu's grandmother.
MATHIEU: There's something that happened that I wasn't expecting. The switch in the psyche of people that an artist can do something like that. And I saw it in people's eyes not in their words. They look at me like, whoa.
JACOBS: A video installation by an Iranian-Canadian was the fund's first purchase. Helping museums acquire work by underrepresented artists has been the goal of the Atlanta-based Souls Grown Deep Foundation for the past two years. In 2018, it shifted from loaning items from its huge collection of Southern African American artists to placing them in museums permanently. The foundation's president, Maxwell Anderson, explains.
MAXWELL ANDERSON: Loans are wonderful, and they have an impact on the function of exhibitions and displays. But they don't accomplish a larger objective, which is to see the works hung in the permanent collection alongside other works of 20th century American art.
FRANKLIN SIRMANS: The collection is so massive, they could have said, OK, we'll just open our own museum.
JACOBS: Franklin Sirmans, director of the Perez Art Museum Miami, joined Souls Grown Deep's board last year.
SIRMANS: That would have been nice, and some of us would have made the pilgrimage. It would have never, never had the impact that I believe they're having now.
JACOBS: Souls Grown Deep has placed 400 pieces by artists including Thornton Dial and Nellie Mae Rowe permanently in 20 museums, including New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New Orleans Museum of Art and the High Museum in Atlanta.
The foundation sells the work to museums at below-market prices, which is a good thing because nowadays, these works have become costly as museums are scrambling for artists they ignored during their lifetimes, says Valerie Cassel Oliver, curator at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts.
VALERIE CASSEL OLIVER: The desire is to have them, but they're now too expensive. And it's like, well, yeah, there were certain works there were $2,000 in 1970 when you didn't want them. Now they're $200,000.
JACOBS: So to afford them, some museums are selling other art. Chris Bedford is the director of the Baltimore Museum of Art. Two years ago, the BMA decided to sell paintings to raise money for more work by women and artists of color.
CHRISTOPHER BEDFORD: Seven paintings all by white male artists, which quite naturally represent the redundancy within a collection due to a history of both conscious and unconscious bias.
JACOBS: The sale of work by artists including Andy Warhol, who Bedford says are still well-represented in the museum, raised $7 million dollars, some controversy but also praise.
Last year, SFMOMA sold a Rothko it had in storage. The Art Gallery of Ontario sold 20 paintings by a Canadian landscape artist to purchase more indigenous works. But Cassel Oliver says she's not crazy about these types of sales.
CASSEL OLIVER: I think that sets up binaries that, I think, feed into this notion or this anxiety and this fear that in order to represent other people, you have to erase or remove others. And that's a fallacy.
JACOBS: She says if museums really want to expand their collections, they need to make it a priority to raise funds from donors.
CASSEL OLIVER: Making funds available to buy works by women artists, making funds available to buy works by other artists of color.
JACOBS: More museums have been setting up targeted funds in recent years, and that's important because it sets goals to last. Museum leadership can change. Momentum can fade. The terms of the donations remain in place.
Montreal artist Manuel Mathieu thinks his grandmother would be more pleased with the fund that bears her name than she would seeing the painting of herself on the museum's walls.
MATHIEU: She did make a difference in my life. And I think it makes sense that she keeps making difference in other people's lives.
JACOBS: For NPR News, I'm Emma Jacobs in Montreal.
[POST-BROADCAST CORRECTION: In the audio of this story, we incorrectly state that the Souls Grown Deep Foundation has been helping museums acquire work by underrepresented artists for the past two years. In fact, the foundation began this effort in 2014.]
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